Connecting People to Buildings: Virtual Occupancy Metering
The key to realizing the potential of smart buildings is well known. Solutions must connect people to the building control systems to meet their needs for comfort: supply fresh air, maintain optimum temperature and provide high quality lighting. The cornerstone of any solution is the need to accurately detect and locate building occupants in real-time.
Once you know where people are located, the building controls can target comfort, ventilation and lighting services. But why is occupancy detection so hard to attain at an affordable price? In part, this is due to the reliance on physical sensors to detect the location and presence of occupants. Deploying a fleet of sensors such as CO2 detectors, PIR, or video analytics requires dedicated hardware and supporting infrastructure. The good news is that virtual solutions have arrived, meaning that occupancy sensing hardware is no longer the only option.
Sensible Building Science (Sensible) has invented an entirely new method of virtual occupancy metering (VOM). Through partnership with Cisco Systems, existing Wi-Fi activity data can be made available to provide feedback to building control systems on occupancy as well as number of people in a space, without the need for physical sensors. This solution is called Bridge, and it uses existing Wi-Fi activity data to generate VOM data and enable occupant-demand control of building HVAC systems, without the need to install new equipment such as motion detectors, video cameras, or physical sensors. It’s like Google Traffic, but for indoor environments.
This solution finds energy savings and improves comfort from optimized automation of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) control, by directly communicating occupancy changes to the building control system. When people arrive in a room with their cell phones, or other Wi-Fi enabled devices, the virtual solution tells the building controls to provide fresh air along with heating or cooling to match the occupancy need. With over 90% accuracy and a response time of less than three minutes, it is potentially faster and more precise than CO2 sensor response. The solution has been tested successfully at the University of British Columbia, where Cisco provided the location data with their CMX product and Sensible’s Bridge provided the occupancy intelligence and integration with HVAC. UBC’s one million square meter campus supports approximately 70,000 concurrent clients using the network on 130,000 unique devices, supported by 5500 access points. UBC paved the way in digitizing their network to glean data analytics on traffic patterns to improve and adapt their campus buildings. With Cisco CMX, UBC is now able to dynamically adapt to building occupancy rates (Source: Cisco Blogs).
The advantages of virtual solutions really come into their own when it comes to facility management. They are low maintenance, as they use existing Wi-Fi infrastructure—which means there is no sensor calibration or maintenance. The solution can also reduce facility ‘trouble-calls’ by detecting unscheduled occupancy. HVAC response is automated and responds wherever people gather, making sure people have optimal comfort, and reducing the number of comfort complaints.
Virtual solutions have a distinctive advantage for getting fast returns on investment for organizations and institutions with sustainability mandates. Municipalities, universities and the health care sector all have stringent ‘green’ targets to reduce energy and lower their buildings’ impact on the environment. The low capital expenditure required for virtual solutions results in fast payback times. Extensive testing at three different university campuses attained energy savings of 5% annually with a payback of under five years. Most of these savings have been gained in building zones with rooms that have low occupancy for extended periods of time. In lecture halls with periodic classes, the Bridge reduced fan run-time hours by 20-40%.
Implementing virtual solutions can be accelerated by excellent partnerships. Integrating between systems to ensure uninterrupted data communication can be challenging. Bridging Wi-Fi data to building controls was advanced with partnerships with Cisco Systems, along with control vendors and energy management consultation partners Prism Engineering and SES Consulting. With the support and innovation possible with the right partners, the future is looking bright for virtualized smart building solutions.
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UPCOMING REALCOMM WEBINARS
Beyond the Building Network - Bridging the Gap Between IT and OT - 3/8/2018
Information Technology (IT) and Operational Technology (OT) are both necessary to improve a smart building. IT is usually responsible for processing information and the network it runs over. OT is the hardware and applications that sense and/or cause changes in the monitoring or control of physical devices, processes and events like HVAC, lighting and security. Typically, IT folks don’t really get too involved in OT processes, and OT doesn’t really understand traditional IT governance and processes such as Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL), cybersecurity, etc. Without both working together, they’re like two wrestlers, each with one hand tied behind their back. In this webinar we’ll explore how IT and OT can break down the communication barriers and work together to ensure better results.
Jesse Carrillo is responsible for directing all corporate technology, strategy and standards for Hines worldwide. Jesse joined Hines in 1994 as a consultant to assist in the implementation of the firm's accounting and property management software. He took over the responsibility for Hines IT as CTO in 2007 and later promoted to CIO in 2009.
Ryan Allbaugh has over 20 years of experience in the IT industry. Currently, he leads highly knowledgeable and collaborative teams to design and implement technical solutions for Wells Fargo’s corporate properties group. As the former CIO of the largest private commercial real estate developer in the southeast, Ryan applied his extensive knowledge to implement technology solutions impacting the real estate industry, such as his role in the development of one of the most technologically sophisticated buildings in the world, the Duke Energy Center in Charlotte, NC.
Vladi Shuntorov is Lucid's President and Cofounder. Vladi led Lucid's early product and engineering teams and has driven the evolution of the company from its inception in 2004 to the launch of BuildingOS. A recipient of awards from U.S. EPA and Cleantech Open, Vladi has dozens of widely cited publications in the field and has delivered many distinguished presentations, including at TEDx. Vladi helped pioneer groundbreaking research in commercial building monitoring systems and realtime feedback technology.